An Important Skill For College Students – Annotation

The learning process differs from student to student; various strategies are used to capture the essence of a lecture or topic. Among the strategies used by students, annotation is one that is considered to be very effective. What is this technique, and how does it benefit the students?

What is annotation?

Annotation refers to highlighting and marking comments in the margins of an article.

What is the purpose of annotating?

Highlighting all the important material and translating it into your own words in the margins means you only have to read a chapter ONCE. Additional readings are a waste of time. When it comes time for an exam, you only need to study what you extracted as important: the highlighting and margin comments.

What is the first step in annotating?

Read the title and a paragraph or two to get an idea of the authors’ main point. Why was this article written? Once you know the authors’ purpose, it is easier to pick out the main ideas and important details.

How much should you highlight?

A general rule is to highlight between 25-30% of the page. If you are highlighting more, it is often too much, unless it is a highly detailed scientific article, for example. If you are highlighting less, chances are you are omitting important ideas.

How should you highlight?

NEVER highlight in complete sentences – that is “coloring”. You should highlight in “telegram” language – pretend you are paying by the word. Being selective forces you to think while highlighting, while daydreaming occurs when you are “coloring across lines”.

What is the purpose of marking in the margins?

You should write in the margins to explain the material in your own words. You probably will have to read some paragraphs several times before you understand them. Once you are able to translate the authors’ idea, you know you understand it. When it is time for an exam, simply study the highlighted and marked material. Of course, do not forget you also have important points in your notes.

How do you know if your annotation is done well?

You can check the highlighting by reading it back. While it will sound choppy, it should tell an understandable story to someone who did not do the reading. If it does not make sense, you have not highlighted the correct words.

How do you study your annotations?

•Put the facts on flashcards.

•Put a term on front and explanation on the back in LIST form, in PHRASES – Do not use sentences. Lists are easier to remember using word tricks called mnemonics.

Annotating is one of the most essential study skills in college. Although it will take longer to read something if you are annotating it, you have done the hard work up front. When an exam is announced and other students are scrambling to re-read the chapters, you will simply have to study your annotations!

Source by Joan Azarva

Everything You Need to Know About Sumo Suits

Japanese sumo wrestlers look quite amusing, not to mention entertaining. Well, not to be sounding judgmental, but seeing two bulky men with massive arms and legs and large protruding bellies, battling and grappling each other and wrestling create quite a hilarious picture. People from all ages, especially kids love sumo wrestlers and tuck pillows and cushions in their T-shirts, pretending to be sumo wrestlers and battle like them. Remember the famous Yukozuna from WWF? So, whose favorite wrestler was he among you?

Now, you don’t need pillows or cushions to look like sumo wrestlers when you can get sumo suits quite easily. Moreover, they make a find Halloween costume as well. These suits are not only affordable but pretty easy to put on and comfortable too.

There are two kinds of sumo suits available:

· Padded ones

· Inflatable ones

The padded suits are made up of PVC material. The feel and texture of the suit makes you look like a heavyweight sumo champion. Though, putting on a this sumo suit in scorching summers can be leave the person feeling uncomfortable or even suffocated. Although, it does depend on the PVC material used, however, these suits are waterproof and corrosion resistant.

As for the inflatable suits, these are made of rubber of soft plastic. Blow air in it using air pistols and they’ll bloat up, giving you a heavy sumo look. The inflated suits are much lighter and convenient to use, compared to the padded ones. Plus, you can easily carry them anywhere since they can easily be deflated whenever not in use.

The inflated suits are particularly popular among kids and teens. Whether it’s a Halloween party or a birthday party, jumping castles or inflatable sumo suits makes the party even more fun and exciting. You can even bring in an adult wearing a sumo suit, pretending to be a sumo wrestler and play around with kids.

You can easily purchase these suits or even acquire them on lease. There are many vendors available online who are just a phone call away. However, always purchase or lease them from trusted dealers.

People who give sumo suits for rent also give headgear and belly rings along. So, make sure that your rental service also gives these essential accessories along.

Also, you must know that these suits come in all sizes. You make sure you get one that fits your height. If you don’t get one that fits your size, you’ll miss out on the fun element completely since you won’t be able to comfortably enjoy wearing it or put up an interesting show.

These sumo suits don’t cost much. Renting it is perhaps a cost-effective solution and it doesn’t charge more than $200-$250 a day.

When searching around for the best rental service in your town, make sure that they follow all these conditions, not to mention, keep their suits clean. It takes almost an average of 2 hours to clean the suit properly, and devoting that much time is taken seriously only by trusted companies.

Source by Mona Farooq M

Insurance In Tort Laws

INTRODUCTION

This project has been an eye opener for me. It is extremely relevant to the modern times and as the future of India we should understand that it is the common mass that runs the country. Consumer protection rights are an important issue in modern days. The law can be effectively used to stop any abuse of the common people especially illiterate masses who do not understand the rules and regulations which is to be followed while buying particular item. It is law, the controller of the entire society which can stop this abuse from taking place. It can place effective standards guiding a product’s genuinity and the proper verification of its price. No extra taxes should be issued according to the seller’s wish. I have proceeded by referring to the books written by Avtar Singh, Venkat Rao and others. It has been a wonderful and educational delight in going about this topic and making a project which is of greatest importance in the present day scenario.

DEFINITION OF CONSUMER

The words “consumer”, “consumed”, “consumption” is all cognate, and when one is defined, the contents of the definition go into all of them wherever they occur in the same act.

Section 2 of the act wherein ‘consumer’ is defined. According to him, the definition of the consumer will not take a client who engaged the advocate for professional services.

Consumer means any person who-

– Buys any goods for a consideration which has been paid or promised or partly paid and partly promised or under any system or deferred payment and includes any user of such goods other than the person who buys such goods for consideration paid or promised or partly promised or under any system of deferred payment when such use is made with the approval of the person, but does not include a person who obtains such goods for resale or for any commercial purpose

– Hires or avails of any services for a consideration which has been paid or promised or partly paid or partly promised or under any system of deferred payment and includes any beneficiary of such services other than the person who hires or avails of the services for the consideration paid or promised or partly paid or partly promised or under any system of deferred payment when such services are availed of with the approval of the first mentioned person but does not include a person who avails of such services for any commercial support

In Black’s Law Dictionary it is to mean:

One who consumes. Individuals who purchase, use, maintain or dispose of products and services. A member of that broad class of people who are influenced by pricing policies, financing practices, quality of goods and services, credit reporting debt collection and other trade practices for which the state and federal consumer laws are enacted.

OBJECTVES OF THE ACT

The act is dedicated, as its preamble shows, to provide for better protection of rights of consumers and for that purpose to make provisions for the establishment of consumer councils and other authorities for settlement of consumer disputes and for other connected matters. In the statement of objects, reasons it is said that and the act seeks to provide speedy and simple redressal to consumer disputes. Quasi judicial body machinery has been set up at the district, state and central levels. These quasi judicial bodies have to observe the principle of natural justice and have been empowered to give relief to a specific nature and to award, wherever appropriate, compensation to consumers. Penalties for non compliance of orders given by quasi judicial bodies have also been provided.

The object and purpose of rendering the act is to render simple, inexpensive and speedy remedy to consumers with complaints against defective goods and deficient services and for that quasi judicial machinery has been sought to be set up at the district, state and national levels. These quasi judicial bodies are required to apply the principle of natural justice and have been empowered to give relief of specific nature and appoint wherever necessary, compensation to consumers.

INSURANCE

An operational definition of insurance is that it is

– the benefit provided by a particular kind of indemnity contract, called an insurance policy;

– that is issued by one of several kinds of legal entities (stock company, mutual company, reciprocal, or Lloyd’s syndicate, for example), any of which may be called an insurer;

– in which the insurer promises to pay on behalf of or to indemnify another party, called a policyholder or insured;

– That protects the insured against loss caused by those perils subject to the indemnity in exchange for consideration known as an insurance premium.

The influence of insurance on the law of torts has been significant, both on theoretical level and on practice. Insurance has undermined one of the two main functions of awarding of damages, and it has in cast doubt on the value judgements made by the courts in determining which particular test of liability is appropriate in the given circumstances.

Regardless of whether in the particular circumstances the appropriate principle of liability is intention is malice, fault or strict liability, the purpose of common law damages remains the same. The primary purpose of an award of damages is to compensate the victim for his loss, with view to restoring him as near as possible to the position he would have been in but for the tort of the wrongdoer. But damages have another: by making the wrongdoer responsible for meeting an award of damages, the courts are trying to deter others from committing similar tortuous wrongs.

Insurance vitiates the secondary purpose of damages, at the same time incidentally ensuring that the primary purpose is more often achieved.

It can scarcely be realistically asserted that insured defendants are deterred by the prospect of losing no-claims bonus or by increasing of premium on renewal of their policies. Once it is conceded that insurance renders compensation for the sole purpose of damages but then the tort action itself becomes vulnerable to attack, for there are many ways-some perhaps fairer and administratively cheaper than tort- of compensating a victim for a loss he has suffered.

Prima facie, where a person suffers loss of recognized kind as the result of another’s act, then the latter should have to make good that loss. But for valid reasons, the courts have held that, in certain circumstances, the actor will have to compensate his victim only if he is at fault. The victim’s right to compensation is, therefore curtailed in an attempt to be fair to both the parties. The courts have made a policy decision that, in the circumstances, it is right to reward a defendant who has been careful by protecting him from liability for the consequences of his actions and that, as a corollary the plaintiff must forego his compensation. The policy decision is made on the supposition that the wrongdoer would himself have to pay for the damages but for this protection; it by no means follows that the same decision would be made if there were no risk of the wrongdoer having to provide the compensation.

It is difficult to judge the victim’s right to compensation should be curtailed when that curtailment is not justified by a corresponding benefit to the wrongdoer. The requirement of fault ceases to play its role as the leveler between the victim’s legitimate expectations and the wrongdoer’s legitimate expectations, and becomes simply a hurdle to the victim’s progress to compensation. If it is accepted that no one can insure against liability for harm caused by intentionally to another , then similar arguments can be made by the inappropriateness of the victim’s having, in certain circumstances to prove an intention to do him wrong or harm, when it is irrelevant to the wrongdoer whether he had such an intention or not.

Again the victim’s right to compensation is being curtailed without any corresponding benefit to the wrongdoer.

However, insurance has influenced the law of tort on a much more practical level as well. While the fact of insurance is not of itself a reason for imposing liability , there can be no doubt that it does add “a little extra tensile strength” to the chain which a wrongdoer to his responsibilities.

As well it has given new horizon to damages ; it is true that traditionally it was considered to inform the court that a defendant was insured , but “those days are long past” and now it is frequently openly recognized that the defendant would be insured.

The policy of insurance constitutes a contract of insurance between Life Insurance Corporation or a subsidiary of General Insurance Company of India, as the case may be, such services such has been undertaken to render under the contract of insurance. However as a rule, occasion to render services arise only when insured surrenders his policy, or the policy matures for payment or the insured dies or any other contingency which gives rise to render service occurs.

Breach of contract of insurance may give rise to a cause of action to file a civil suit, but such breach of contract may itself constitute deficiency in service, so as to give a cause of action to file a complaint under the consumer protection act for one such more relieves awardable hereunder.

Section 13(4) of the act vests in a redressal agency powers of the Civil Court, while trying a suit in respect of such matters as examination of witnesses on oath and production of documents. Declining to exercise jurisdiction in a case before it only because it involves examination and cross examination of facts, witnesses and production and consideration of documents would amount to abdication of its jurisdiction.

Such discretion can be exercised only when the gives rise to several issues and necessities taking of voluminous oral and documentary evidence, or otherwise involve complex questions of fact and law which cannot be decided in time bound proceedings under the consumer protection act.

MOTOR VEHICLE INSURANCE

Where the sale of a vehicle is complete, the title therein passes to the purchaser notwithstanding that his name has not been recorded in the R.C.Book. Such owner is entitled to get his vehicle insured and also to maintain a claim on the basis of such insurance. The earlier owner, who has lost insurable insurance on the sold vehicle, cannot advance a claim on the basis of policy of the said vehicle, earlier taken by him, on the ground that he is still the recorded owner of the said vehicle.

Section 157 of the motor vehicles act is only in respect of third party risks and provides that the certificate of insurance described therein shall be deemed to have been transferred in favour of the person to whom the motor vehicle is being transferred. It does not apply to other risks, if any, covered by the policy. If the transferee wants to avail the benefits of other risks covered by it, he has to enter into an agreement thereof with the investor.

FRAUD BY INSURER

If it is established that the discharge voucher was obtained by fraud, misrepresentation, undue influence or coercive bargaining or compelled by circumstances, the authority of the consumer forum may be justified in granting relief. Mere execution of the discharge voucher would not deprive the consumer of his claim in deficiency of service.

DELAY IN SETTLEMENT OF CLAIM

In Sarveshwar Rao v. National Insurance Company Ltd. , it was held that the delay of two or more years in settling the insurance claim would result in inadequacy in the quality, nature and manner of the service which the insurance company has undertaken to render, and amounts to deficiency in service.

In Delkon India Pvt. Ltd. V. The Oriental Insurance Company Ltd. . The National Commission has held that it was a deficiency of service to have delayed the claim by two years on the ground that the final police report was not coming.

INTERPRETATION OF TERMS

In Skandia Insurance Company v. Kokilaben Chandravadan , the honorable Supreme Court ruled that the exclusion terms of the insurance must be read with so as to serve the main purpose of the policy, which is to indemnify the damages caused to the vehicle.

CONDUCT OF THE INSURER

In Oriental Insurance Co. Ltd. V. Mayur Restaurant and bar , the conduct of the insurer was under question. The commission held that deficiency of the service was established on the part of the opposite party on two counts i)delay in settlement of claims and ii) unreasonable and un maintainable reasons for repudiating the claim of the complainant, and the compensation with the interest and cost was awarded.

SUICIDE BY THE ASSURED

In Life Insurance Corporation v Dharma Vir Anand, the national commission refused to hold the insurance commission liable as the insured committed suicide before the expiry of three years from the date of the policy.

BREACH OF TERMS

In B.V.Nagarjuna v Oriental Insurance Company Ltd., the terms of insurance contract permitted the insured vehicle to carry six passengers at a time but the driver allowed two more persons to get in. It was held that merely adding two more persons without the knowledge of the driver did not amount to indemnification by the insurance company.

NOMINEE’S RIGHTS

In Jagdish Prakash Dagar v. Life Insurance Corporation , it was held that a nominee under a policy of life insurance will be a consumer within the meaning of section 2(1) (d) of the Consumer Protection Act. The commission held that the nominee could legislatively maintain an action against deficiency raised in service by the arbitrary decision of the insurer.

REPUDIATION

Repudiation is defined as the renunciation of a contract (which holds a repudiator liable to be sued for breach of contract, and entitles the repudiatee on accepting the repudiation to treat the contract as at an end

This concept of repudiation is needed in the concept of insurance. The concept of repudiation will be dealt hereto a number of times and to provide beneficiary evidence, the definition has been given.

Unilateral repudiation of its liability, under the contact of by the life insurance corporation or an insurance company does not, by itself oust the jurisdiction of a redressal agency, to go into the sustainability of such repudiation, on facts and in law and to decide and to adjudicate if, in the facts of the case, it amounts to deficiency in service or unfair trade practice, and if so, to award to the aggrieved person, such relief or reliefs under Section 14(1) of the said Act as he or she is entitled to. The fact that before such repudiation it obtained a report from a surveyor or surveyors also does not oust the jurisdiction of a redressal agents to into the merits of such repudiation, for otherwise in each case the corporation or such company, and deprived the aggrieved person of the cheap and expeditious remedy under the consumer protection act.

Where, however the corporation or the company conducts thorough investigations into the facts which have given rise to claim and other associated facts, and repudiates the claims in good faith after exercise with due care and proper application of mind, the redressal agency should decline to go into the merits of such repudiation and leave the aggrieved person to resort to the regular remedy of a suit in a civil court.

The law does not require the life insurance corporation or an insurance company to accept every claim good or bad, true or false, but it does require the corporation or the company to make a thorough investigation into such claim and to take decisions on it, in good faith, after exercise of due care and proper application of mind and where it does so it renders the service required by it and cannot be charged with deficiencies in service, even if, in the ultimate analysis, such decisions is wrong on the facts and in law and the redressal agency would be disinclined to substitute its own judgement in the place of the judgement of the corporation or insurance company.

The question as to whether repudiation of its liability does or does not amount to deficiency in service would depend upon the facts of each case.

Where a cheque sent towards a premium is dishonoured by the drawee bank and consequently the policy is cancelled or it lapses or the injured dies before the proposal is accepted and contract of insurance results, no claim can be founded in such a policy, which was cancelled or has since lapsed, or a contract of insurance, which did not materialize at all. Repudiation of such claim can never amount to deficiency in service.

Insurance agent is not entitled to collect premium on behalf of the corporation. Where an insured issues a bearer cheque towards premium and hands it over the insurance agent who encashes it, but does not deposit the premium with the corporation event till the expiry of the grace period and consequently the policy lapses and meanwhile the insured also dies, his nominee has to blame himself or herself for the indiscretion of the insured and cannot blame or fault the corporation.

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF INSURANCE

There are some basic principles concerning the topic of Consumer Protection Law and Insurance.

– Settlement of insurance claim is service, default or negligence therein is deficiency of that service

In the case of Shri Umedilal Agarwal v. United India Assurance Co. Ltd, the National Commission observed as under:

“We find no merit in the contention put forward by the insurance company that a complaint relating to the failure on the part of the insurer to the settle the claim of the insured within a reasonable time and the prayer for the grant of compensation in respect of such delay will not within the jurisdiction of the redressal forums constituted under the consumer protection act.

The provision of facilities in connection with insurance has been specifically included within the scope of the expression “service” by the definition of the said word contained in section 2(i) (o) of the act. Our attention was invited by Mr. Malhotra, learned counsel for the insurance company to the decision of the Queen’s Bench in national transit co. ltd. V. customs and central excise commissioners . The observations contained in the said judgement relating to the scope of the expression insurance occurring in the schedule of the enactment referred to therein are of no assistance to all of us in this case because the context in which that expression is used in the English enactment considered in that case is completely different. Having regard to the philosophy of the consumer protection act and its avowed object of providing cheap and speedy redressal to customers affected by the failure on the part of persons providing service for a consideration, we do not find it possible to hold that the settlement of insurance claims will not be covered by the expression insurance occurring in section 2(1)(d).Whenever there is a fault of negligence that will constitute a deficiency in the service on the part of the insurance company and it will perfectly open to the concerned aggrieved customer to approach the Redressal Forums under the act seeking appropriate relief.”

– L.I.C. Agent has no authority in collecting the premium

The supreme court held that under regulation 8(4) of life insurance corporation of India (agents) regulation, 1972 which had acquired the status of life insurance corporation agents rules with effect from January 31, 1981, which were also published in the gazette, LIC agents were specifically prohibited from collecting premium on behalf of LIC and that in view thereof an inference of implied authority cannot also be raised.

– Rejection of claim as false after full investigation

The national commission held as follows:

” from the facts disclosed by the record and particularly averments contained in the consumer affidavit filed by the first respondent it is seen that the insurance company had fully investigated into the claims put forward by the complainant that his claim was rejected. Thus it is not a case where the insurance company did not take a prompt and immediate option for deciding the claims against the insurance company. Having regards to the facts and circumstances of this case and the nature of the controversy between the parties we consider that this is a matter that should be adjudicated before a civil court where the complainant as well as the respondent will have ample opportunities to examine witnesses at length, take out the commission for local inspections etc. and have an elaborate trial of the case.”

– Unilateral reduction in the insurance amount.

The national commission held that the insurance company is not entitled to make a unilateral reduction of Rs. 4, 29,771 from Rs. 30, 12,549 at which its own surveyor assessed the loss.

– Mere repudiation does not render the complaint not maintainable.

The national commission overruled the objection of the insurance company that merely because the insurer had totally repudiated its liability in respect of the claim, no proceedings could validly be initiated by the insured under the consumer protection act.

– Mere unilateral repudiation does not oust the jurisdiction.

The national commission held that merely because the insurer has repudiated the insurance claim under the policy unilaterally, it is difficult to hold that the various redressal forums constituted under the consumer protection act, 1986 will have no jurisdiction to deal with the matter that if such a contention of the insurance company can get a report from the surveyors, repudiate the claim and oust the jurisdiction of the redressal forums, that the redressal forums are, therefore, bound to see whether or not the repudiation was made in good faith on valid and justifiable grounds that if the surveyor or surveyors choose to submit the wrong report and the insurance company repudiates the claims without applying its mind then the repudiation cannot be said to be justified that the report of the surveyor will show that the investigations have been proper, fair and thorough and that it has to be remembered that the surveyors bread comes from the employer.

– Mere unilateral repudiation no ground to oust jurisdiction.

The national commission repelled the objection and observed as under:

“Ordinarily a remedy is available to a consumer in Civil Court but mere repudiation of claim arising out of policy of insurance under section 45 of the insurance act, 1938, cannot take away the jurisdiction of the redressal forum constituted under the act. The avowed object of the act is to provide cheap, speedy and efficacious remedy to the consumers and it is with this object that section 3 of the act lies down as follows:

3. Act not in derogation of the provisions of any other law: – the provisions of this act shall be in addition to and not in derogation of the provisions of any other law for the time being in force.”

The national commission overruled the objection in the view of repudiation of contract of insurance by the corporation; the redressal agencies under the act cannot entertain the claim of the insured and reiterated the law laid down by it in the Divisional Manager, Life insurance Corporation of India, Andhra Pradesh v. Shri Bhavnam Srinivas Reddy.

– Removal of insured goods on attachment no theft.

It was ruled in the stated case that attachment of certain items of insured Machinery and goods by the bailiff of a civil court, though later found to be illegal and consequent removal did not amount to theft and or house breaking by force so as to entitle the insured to prefer a claim under the policy.

– When repudiation amounts to deficiency and when it does not?

The national has held:

In M/s Rajdeep Leasing and Finance and others v. New India Assurance Company Limited and others –

That rejection of the claim by the insurance company after examining and considering the two separate survey reports from qualified surveyors and three legal opinions from different oriental counsels could not be said to constitute a deficiency in service so as to give a rise in the cause of action for a complaint under the consumer protection act.

In Oriental Insurance Co. Ltd. V Modern Industries Ltd. , the national commission has held that where the cover note inter alia mentions that the risk is subject to the usual terms and conditions of the standard policy, it is equally the responsibility of the complainant to call for these terms and conditions even if they are not sent by the insurance company, as alleged, to understand the extent of risk covered under the policy and associated aspects.

In Life Insurance Corporation of India v. Dr. Sampooran Singh

The complainant had taken out an insurance policy of 40,000 rupees in 1982, for the purpose of payment of estate duty on his only residential house in chandigarh in the event of his death and paid 5 premia, but with the abolition of estate duty on one residential house owner in 1985, the policy became inoperative due to the act of the state and not due to any deficiency on the part of the corporation any dispute between the parties as to the amount payable there under cannot be construed as deficiency in service on part of the corporation.

In LIC of India v M/s Kanchan Murlidhar Akkalwar

The complainant applied to the opposite party for housing loan, and on the advice of the latter, she took two LIC policies, one for Rs. 90000 and the other for Rs. 20000 entered into an agreement for the purchase of the house with the house with the owner on the advice of the opposite party obtained a fire policy for Rs. 2 lakhs. The opposite party advised the complainant to obtain a release deed from the zilla parishad co operative society in respect of the she proposed to purchase with a certificate that the said plot is not mortgaged therein. The complainant got a certificate from the Maharashtra government that the vendor had re paid the housing loan and interest thereon due to Zilla Parishad Krishi Karmachari Sehakari Gribe Narman Sanstha and that there was nothing outstanding from him towards loan amount or interest. Still the opposite party did not release the loan. On these facts the national commission by its majority judgement observed that:

“We have carefully gone through the records and heard the counsel. Clause 1 (c) of the loan offer letter clearly states that the advance of the loan is subject to the property being free from encumbrances to the satisfaction of the insurance company and a good and marketable title. At the same time it appears that the respondent-complainant had to go through a number of steps, although necessary, having financial implications and causing mental and physical stress to her and at the end of all of which she was told that no dues certificate given by the maharashtra government in respect of the prospective seller of the property in question, was not “release of mortgage” certificate that was obtained. The respondent complainant perhaps also had in her mind the case of Mr. Vaishempayam who got the loan under similar circumstances. Thus the evasion petition is disposed of as above.”

CONCLUSION

This project topic is increasingly beneficial in the modern times with the consumer protection rights being redressed with due care. It is being advertised in the mass media in our country. The slogan which our consumer is using is: “JAGO GRAHAK JAGO”. The time has come to realize the ideal market situation in which the buyers are not persuaded or coerced falsely into buying items which are of no use to them at all. Besides the relationship between buyer and seller should not be damaged at any cost. The relationship between the buyer and seller is said to be a fiduciary relationship and the trust between them should remain intact. A time has come in which the customer should get his proper position in the market conditions. He has to have proper knowledge about what is going on in the market and the concerned prices and the supply and the different other practices referred to.

Insurance is a very sensitive issue in the modern times. People are being hoodwinked into signing up in companies which are turning out to be frauds in the true sense of the term. This project has been an eye opener to me and I have come to realize the importance of the consumer protection act and insurance.

Source by Barnik Ghosh

Training – How to Get a Better Response to Your Internal Training Courses

If you’re part of training team in an organization, you may have a range of courses you offer as part of an internal program. How much response do you get when you let people know about your courses? Could it be better?

It’s a crucial question right now because training budgets are under scrutiny and organizations will be looking at their programs and asking whether all these courses are necessary. If the take – up isn’t very good, there’s a chance some courses may be cut ( also some training jobs! )

I often hear people say something like, ” We’ll let everyone know the course is running and see what response we get. “

This can mean different things. It could mean:

  • the course is listed in some internal training directory
  • the directory is sent out to people, maybe with a training calendar showing all the available courses and some dates
  • the program is on the HR or Training page of a website for people to find if they happen to look
  • a separate flyer for the course is sent out by hard copy or email
  • the information may be sent to everyone or just to certain people who will choose who to send on the course

Often, however the course is listed, there’s precious little information given about it other than the title and a few lines describing the content. This is is nowhere near enough to get people’s interest. As an independent trainer, I know I have to market my services to get people to buy them. But a lot of people in internal teams don’t do enough to promote their courses. They don’t always see the need. They just think they need to list the course with a few details and, if people are interested, they’ll come.

It doesn’t work like that, people still need persuading to give up their time and go on a course. So how do you promote a course successfully? Here’s a very quick guide to marketing.

One – focus on the problems people are facing, the difficulties they have which the course is meant to help them with. In other words, what’s the need that’s given rise to the course?

Two – use these problems as your main ” hook ” to get people’s attention. The description of the course should set out these problems so that people can identify with them.

Three – tell people how the course will solve these problems. What benefits will they get from attending, what will they learn, how will that help them?

Four – give the course an interesting name that reflects the benefit or the solution they’re looking for.

Here’s a brief example.

BEFORE.

A typical listing for a course might be like this:

Title: Time Management.

This is a 1 day course for all managers and will cover topics such as Delegation, Organising your work area, Making To Do lists, Handling emails.”

AFTER.

Title: How To Get More Done In Your Day.

How often do you get to the end of a day and wonder where the time went? Do you find yourself constantly juggling several tasks at once and never actually finishing any of them? How many times do you set out in the morning with the best intentions but find that interruptions and distractions have thrown you off track before you even get to lunchtime?

Well, this workshop is just for you. It will help you to plan your day, deal with distractions and actually get things done. You’ll learn how to:

  • write and use a To Do list the right way (most of them are useless and you’ll find out why)
  • prioritize your work so that you can focus on the most important task
  • deal with interruptions and distractions without losing valuable time and wrecking your plan for the day

You get the idea.

It’s not a question of using ” hype ” or over – promising, it’s just a question of helping people see exactly what they’ll get from attending. And that’s what they need to persuade them to give up valuable time and go to a training course.

The other point is that people don’t make a decision the first time they see something, they may need to be reminded several times before they respond.

So, if you really want to see the numbers go up on your courses, give some thought to the way you market them.

Source by Alan Matthews

Debentures Vs. Stocks And Bonds

A debenture is an unsecured loan you offer to a company. The company does not give any collateral for the debenture, but pays a higher rate of interest to its creditors. In case of bankruptcy or financial difficulties, the debenture holders are paid later than bondholders. Debentures are different from stocks and bonds, although all three are types of investment. Let us discuss about different types of investment options for small investors and entrepreneurs.

Debentures vs. Stocks:

When you buy stocks, you become one of the owners of the company. Your fortunes rise and fall with that of the company. If the stocks of the company soar in value, your investment pays off high dividends, but if the stocks decrease in value, the investments are low paying. Higher the risk you take, higher the rewards you get.

Debentures are more secure than stocks, in the sense that you are guaranteed payments with high interest rates. You are paid an interest on the money you lend the company until the maturity period, after which whatever you invested in the company is paid back to you. The interest is the profit you make from debentures. While stocks are for those who like playing the field, and are willing to take risks for the sake of high returns, debentures are for people who want a safe and secure income.

Debentures vs. Bonds:

Debentures and bonds are similar except for one difference – bonds are more secure than debentures. In case of both, you are paid a guaranteed interest that does not change in value irrespective of the fortunes of the company. However, bonds are more secure than debentures, but carry a lower interest rate. The company provides collateral for the loan. Moreover, in case of liquidation, bondholders will be paid off before debenture holders.

A debenture is more secure than a stock, but not as secure as a bond. In case of bankruptcy, you have no collateral you can claim from the company. To compensate for this, companies pay higher interest rates to debenture holders.

All investment, including stocks bonds or debentures carry an element of risk. If you are unsure of the investment options that are best for your business, then you can consult a small business consultant who will guide you to the best investment options available to you. Investing wisely today can pay heavy dividends tomorrow.

Source by Alexander Gordon

Review of AVS4YOU

If you are looking for an honest AVS4YOU review which is based on personal experience and also on real testimonials collected from all over the Internet, then you’ve come to the right place. In this article I will try my best to enlighten you on some subtle and finer nuances of this software suit of products and also give you the major pros and cons of it. After reading my review I suggest you to visit the official website of AVS from which you can get more information if needed.

What is AVS4YOU

AVS4YOU is a collection of software tools (currently there are 18 tools available) for which you can purchase either an unlimited access license or a one-year access license and use ALL of the tools with that license. There is a Trial Download version for all of the tools from the official website. There is nothing better than using the software first before purchasing.

The official price for the Unlimited Access Subscription license is $59 and offers full access to all software tools with no time limits.

The official price for the One-Year Access Subscription license is $39 and offers full access to all software tools for one year only.

Who is Behind AVS4YOU

The company behind AVS4YOU.com is “Online Media Technologies Ltd” which is based in London, UK and specializes in software development for digital video and multimedia. That’s why the best software tools in the AVS4YOU bundle are the ones dealing with Video and Audio multimedia. The company developing the AVS products has been in the market since 2004 and has a very strong reputation as one of the best and most trusted software companies in the field of digital multimedia.

What’s included in the AVS4YOU package

As we’ve already mentioned above, the website offers a bundle of 18 software tools divided in 4 categories:

Video Software Category:

o AVS Video Converter (Most Popular tool)

o AVS Video Editor (Most Popular tool)

o AVS Video Remaker

o AVS DVD Authoring

o AVS Video Recorder

o AVS Media Player

Audio Software Category:

o AVS Ringtone Maker

o AVS Audio Recorder

o AVS Audio Editor

o AVS Audio Converter

Image Software Category

o AVS Image Converter

o AVS Photo Editor

o AVS Cover Editor

Miscellaneous Software Category

o AVS Disc Creator

o AVS DVD Copy

o AVS Firewall

o AVS Registry Cleaner

o AVS Antispam

The best tools included in the bundle package above are the first two categories (Video and Audio Software Tools). Indeed, the company is specializing in digital multimedia technologies, so their Video and Audio tools are the best. Especially the AVS Video Converter and AVS Video Editor are the most popular from what I have gathered after reading several testimonials.

If you are looking for firewall, registry cleaner, antispam tools etc, you will find better products from other vendors, not from AVS4YOU. However, if you purchase the registration license, you will have access to the Miscellaneous Category tools anyway, so why not use those software tools as well.

The software tools work ONLY on Windows Operating System (Win XP, Win 2003, Vista and Windows 7).

Advantages and Disadvantages

Advantages:

• Being a tech guy and video/audio fanatic, I can assure you that the video/audio tools that you will get in the bundle are probably the best in the market. I have not tried the rest of the tools (yet), but for the video and audio tools I have a great personal experience.

• Excellent price. Considering the price with which you get to download 18 top-notch software tools, there is nothing much to say about the value for money you will get.

• 30 Day Unconditional Money Back Guarantee.

• Free Trials for all the software. Just Download, Install and give them a try before you buy.

• Free Software Updates for life.

• Every new software released by the AVS4YOU website will be always free for customers that have already purchased a subscription license.

• Unprecedented Technical Support.

• The AVS4YOU website is full of excellent User Guides and Video How-To Guides to help you perform any supported task with the software tools.

Disadvantages:

• License is valid only for a single computer. If you are planning to change your computer soon, then don’t buy just before you get a new PC.

• Software works only on Windows machines (no MAC or Linux support).

• The company might go bankrupt if they keep the price so low (just kidding!).

Source by Adelbert Sturm

Three Top HVAC Van Storage Questions for AC Repair Efficiency

To a veteran air conditioning service technician, his HVAC van storage is second nature. He knows where everything is stored, each item has its own place, and when that place is empty, he’s missing something critical for his job. The experienced AC repair person has also figured out the best configuration to make his HVAC van storage help him be as efficient and safe as possible.

If a rookie service technician were to apprentice under him, here are some things he might learn during a normal conversation about proper van setup for the air conditioning industry.

Q. Why is it important to plan out where all the small parts are kept in the van?

A. Locating parts, tools, and equipment quickly leads to faster completion of service calls, satisfied customers, and increased revenue for the company. Imagine the time it would take to dig through a large box in your van that is filled with relays, switches, connectors, thermostat boxes, pipe parts, and everything you need all jumbled together. If you were looking for one small part in that large box, you’d waste a lot of time.

Customizing the HVAC van storage with smaller drawers and bins makes it easy to locate and retrieve the parts you need. It also makes it faster to identify when you are missing parts, and when you need to restock your van before the next service call.

Q. What’s the best way to haul refrigerant tanks in a service van?

A. There are a couple of different options, and it’s a matter of preference, and how many tanks you usually haul at one time. Some HVAC van storage layouts have tank holders that sit on the van floor, securing one tank in an upright position.

Another tank storage option is a tank rack that is welded with sloped cradles, which make it easy for loading and unloading the tanks. Heavy steel tank racks can usually hold 3-4 tanks in nearly the same footprint space as one upright tank holder. As an extra storage solution, a welded tank tray rack can be installed on top of the rack system, offering another storage shelf for equipment.

Both of these options use a strap or bungee cord to secure the tank to the storage fixture, and can often be located where it’s best for you in the van. Most technicians put these near the doors, for easy access without having to crawl inside the van.

Q. How do I optimize the best layout for my HVAC van storage?

A. There are a lot of customization options available. These vary from homemade solutions strapped together to pre-designed packages already configured as a solution for the HVAC industry. Solid steel modular components can also fit together for an effective storage solution.

The benefit of pre-designed trade packages as the storage solution is that careful spacing, design and planning have incorporated every need of a specialist in the industry. An air conditioning service technician carries specific tools, parts, and equipment; and the pre-designed packages incorporate trade specific items such as tank racks, vice mount holders, divided shelving, drawers, and hooks into the HVAC van storage layout.

Knowing how to organize the repair technician service van can save time and effort, and ultimately, money for the company. Take time to think through the flow of parts and equipment needed for a job, and organize your HVAC van storage in a way that allows you to operate more efficiently.

Source by Naomi J Lolley

Zrii Juice Review – Hype Juice Scam Or Not?

Just Another Scam Juice Elixir…

or Does Zrii Juice Stand Up To The Hype?

I had one Zrii sales independent associate call me on a cold call on my business line that is specifically for my wellness clients and she started to act like a telemarketer. I have checked out the Zrii company based out of Utah and saw a lot of hype in their videos and way of doing business, so I decided to check them out and give them an honest review.

The popularity of “exotic juice” seems to really be growing. For example, there are over 1000 different Noni Juice companies out there. You can buy Noni Juice or Mangosteen Juice from even your local Costco family shopping store. There are new juice companies popping up on the internet every month. I have actually tried most of the juices out there. Are all these juice companies scams? Or are they the next cure to everything that ails you?

Which one is the best? Or all they all just out to get into your wallet?

The Zrii Business

I will not go into how Zrii CEO Bill Farley led Fruit of the Loom into bankruptcy and how he was fired by Fruit of the Loom’s board of directors right before he started up this new juice company. Everybody makes mistakes and can learn from them.

It appears that the current focus of Zrii is on

1) The seven key ingredients (which are watered down by the primary ingredients, the grape and pear juices), and

2) The income opportunity.

So is Zrii Amalaki Juice a Scam based on nothing more than making a dollar at the “expense” of someone else? They may sell overpriced juice, but they do sell a real product, so they are not a scam. Although if you are looking for a home business that you can do from home or online, I would not recommend them. It seems that you have to recruit a lot of people before you start getting enough income to be able to live on. It can also cost around $2000 to start with the top business package, so it is a little expensive and hard to convince people to join for a “juice”. It is never recommended to join a Network Marketing company within the first 2 years since 80% of NM companies fail in their first two years.

Since I post a lot of articles on health and wellness, I had one Zrii Independent Executive (IE) distributor sales associate call me with an unsolicited cold call to pitch her Zrii businesss opportunity to me. Before I knew it, she went right into the compensation plan. I asked how she found my phone number and she said she was using Google to search for phone numbers of people to call, searching specifically for people in other companies. When I tried to ask her for more information, she hung up on me! She had called from a blocked caller number, so I could not report her to Zrii for a SPAM phone call.

So if your idea of “working from home” and the internet is cold calling people who never even asked for information… then by all means, go join Zrii. But if you are like me, and you have some self respect and value your time and you are looking for a way to help and serve others, while creating significant residual income that you can live on, then visit my site at the bottom of this article and give me a call and ask what I do.

The Zrii Juice Product

Zrii doesn’t list its “nutrition facts” label on the website!

They have flashy videos and promise of money, but no ingredients? How do you compare the actual contents of the juice? Sure, the Zrii corporate website lists the “featured” ingredients — Amalaki, Ginger, Turmeric, Tulsi, Schizandra, Jujube and Haritaki, but they do not tell you how much of each and they don’t even tell you about the primary ingredients being

o Apple juice

o Pear juice

o Pomegranate juice

This had my hype warning going

I had to order a bottle of the Zrii Amalaki juice in order to see the other main ingredients (cheap filler juices), but still, even the label on the bottle conveniently does not reveal how much of each fruit is in the bottle. A little fishy…

What does Zrii Amalaki Juice taste like?

When I tasted the Zrii juice, it tasted like sour cool-aid with extra sugar.

I personally have no huge problems against “juices”.

I mean, hey, I enjoy a nice glass of V8 vegetable juice from time to time. But I see some problems with this company. They may have something good, but I see a money – driven company with another expensive apple juice product that they are trying to peddle.

* Problem – WATER. When you buy a juiced product, you are paying a lot for WATER as one of the main ingredients.

* Problem – OXIDATION. The minute you open the seal on a juice, it begins to oxidize… but many of these companies suggest putting their exotic juice in the refrigerator and consuming it over the period of SEVERAL DAYS or even longer!

* Problem – PASTEURIZATION. Most of the beneficial nutrients are destroyed in the heat process of pasteurization of the juice.

* Problem – SUGAR. A High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) test is a scientific test using a chemist machine that will give an exact breakdown of the molecules in a product. Most juices out there that have been tested on a HPLC, have been found to have fructose (sugar) as the primary compound. Sugar may not necessarily even have been added as an ingredient, but the fruits were naturally high in sugar.

* Problem – OUTRAGEOUS PRICE. When 4 bottles of Zrii juice cost around $120, I begin to wonder how much the price of apple juice has risen to.

But The Two Biggest Problems…

The two biggest problems as pointed out by some experts, are (1) deadly changes in PH level of blood suggested by Dr. Young, and (2) as pointed out by Natural News author Mike Adams… overly hyped “exotic” fruits that only seem exciting since the average consumer may not know anything about it. It may not be any different than just drinking apple juice or pear juice.

1. For the complete FREE report on PH blood changes and exotic juices:

Dr Young on why “Mangosteen, Noni, Goji, Xango, Thia-Go, G3 are ALL Acidic and Detrimental to Health”

2. From reading the article from Natural News by Mike Adams called “Review: Zrii Juice and the Chopra Center – Does it Stand Up to the Hype?” I found that he had some issues also with the nutrition of the product. His review is a little more in depth on the nutrition. He even mentions how the Zrii bottles are plastic and questions whether or not they contain the toxic chemical Bisphenol-A as most plastics do. He complains about how the “primary ingredients (the apple juice, pear juice and pomegranate juice) are NOT organic” and may contain pesticides. He complains about the price, the slightly deceptive marketing, and even calls the product “DEAD, cooked plants mixed in a base of processed grape and pear juice”. Adams goes on to say that by the small amount of good ingredients in the juice, that the product is “an insult to genuine Ayurvedic medicine” and he cannot figure out why the Chopra Center would want to mess up their reputation by being affiliated with this Zrii juice.

Do Your Research Before Using Zrii

Zrii was not for me. I found an alternative that shows more promise in many ways. You will want to do your own research if you are looking into the Zrii juice or Zrii business opportunity.

I did a lot of research before finding the right company and supplement that I now use on a daily basis with a real noticeable difference in my energy and wellness. And just by sharing it with others… I get a nice residual income that my family can live off of, and I don’t have to go work a regular “JOB”.

Source by Spencer Hunt

Moving – Organizing For A Stress-Free Day

To help organize things to run as smoothly as possible, read on for tips on how to organize the best possible moving day. So you have bought the house that will accommodate all your needs, now it is only a matter of relocating your family and all your stuff. Believe it or not, simply transporting the belongings you have had for years can be even more stressful than purchasing a brand new home.

When the idea of moving comes up, most people immediately think of a bunch of cardboard boxes. Something that may not come to mind right away is informing everyone from businesses, government utilities, your bank, and the post office of your imminent, new home address and contact information. It is a great idea to take care of all this a month ahead of time. You will definitely not want to deal with paying for your old property’s utility bills or not receiving your mail after you are ready to settle in your new home. With all the hustle and bustle of packing, labeling, loading and unloading, this step is easy to forget.

If you are leaving an apartment, be sure to contact your landlord in advance to collect your deposit and return your keys. Leases can contain all sorts of fees and penalties that are easy to forget about, so make sure this process is dealt with.

Get your realtor to collect the keys to your new house prior to packing everything up and moving. This tip may sound like common sense, but you would be surprised how sidetracked people can get with something as big as relocating their family. Imagine all of the trucks with your things pulling up, getting ready to unload everything and not being able to drop it off anywhere safe.

In the event that your move is a distant one, to another region of the country for example, be sure to schedule hotel reservations ahead of time.

Creating an overall inventory is a must when transporting every ounce of personal property you own. Getting every family member involved in this process gets it done a lot quicker than you would think. Also, specific family members will probably make more of an effort to organize and keep track of their things.

The stage of packing should begin at least two weeks before it is time to go. As long as it is a group effort and a good portion is done each day, it will progress smoothly and efficiently. Also, label all boxes as you see fit. This will come in handy later on, as you will not have to open up everything to locate specific items.

In terms of getting rid of things you do not need any longer, there is no greater opportunity than this one. Collect all the clothes and items you can live without and donate them. As for your perishables and other food items, empty your refrigerator about a week in advance and be sure to unplug it when you are done.

Moving day will undoubtedly be exciting for everyone, but it does not have to be hectic. Plan ahead and take your time and it will run as smoothly as it can. Do not forget about friends and family during all of this, either. Plenty of them are willing to help out. Lastly, household appliances may be cheaper to purchase later on rather than transport the ones you have presently. Take it all in steps and stick to a schedule and it will be a pleasant transition.

Source by Alfred Ardis

Core Roles Of A Human Resources Expert

The human resources department is one of the most important departments in an organization. Almost all the activities of an organization revolve around the HR department. A Human resource professional must perform a lot of functions and roles in an organization towards the actualization of the corporate goals and objectives of the firm in a way to drive the organization’s vision and mission.

The core roles of a human resources person are grouped into four broad roles that must be carried out professionally. The Human resources professional must be all of these:

A STRATEGIC PARTNER TO HIS ORGANISATION.

AN ADMINISTRATIVE EXPERT.

A CHANGE AGENT.

AN EMPLOYEE CHAMPION.

As a strategic partner, the HR professional must be able to partner with the organization in developing plans that will align the human resources of the firm with the long term corporate goals and vision of the firm. He should be able to contribute to business strategy development by aligning HR jobs with strategic goals. He should be able to provide tools and create an enabling environment to actualize these goals. He is the eyes of his firm in the outside world and should be a liaison between his firm and the society, environment and government. He should be able to analyze work processes and recommend improvements where necessary. He should develop policies that will benefit the firm, Management and employees alike.

As an Administrative expert, the HR professional is expected to carry out administrative duties like providing the necessary tools needed for the organization to operate successfully. He should be able to manage the overall labour costs in his organization and plan for administrative budgets. As an administrative expert, the HR person should be an information manager. He should have at all times all data relating to employees and make same available …at all times. The HR person should be able to discover new and evolving trends that will be beneficial to the company and advise Management accordingly. He should always conduct research to find out what is obtainable in other firms that makes them tick and advise management. The HR person should be able to manage HR budgets (recruitment, selection, training and development, etc. He should be a good negotiator in times of salary decisions.

As a Change agent, he should be able to find out new ways of doing things that can move the company forward. He should be able to convince Management on the need for the change and address employees about changes. He should coordinate and facilitate the change process. He is to provide the tools and structures needed during change period. As an expert, he should be able to create a new organizational change without disrupting the firms business.

As an Employee Champion, the HR professional should be able to manage the selection, recruitment, training, development, career planning, performance management, succession planning, and Staff retention exercises. He is to determine the long term human resources needs, assess current resources and determine area of changes. He is to determine whether human resources needs can be sourced internally or externally. He is to conduct training needs assessment, to determine the type of training that will benefit the staff and organization. Conduct and arrange for trainings and determine the training results on the productivity of the firm. The HR professional manages and carries out career management in a way to align the employees’ dreams with the organizational requirements. Also as an employee champion, the HR expert is to carry out performance appraisal exercises to determine staff performances in their present responsibilities a well as determining those that will be rewarded, promoted, demoted and recognized. As an employee champion he should be involved in grievance handling and disciplinary issues in the firm. He is to handle all employee related matters like leave issues, medicals, pension matters, housing and general welfare issues.

In summary a HR professional should be able to perform the following functions; Manpower planning, recruitment, compensation and salary issues, employee development and administration, Training and career development, labour relations and discipline management, personnel transfer and movement, performance management Human resources information system, payroll, organizational development etc.

Source by Ndunuju Adiele